Workshop 3 : Solar energy technologies update and future prospects
Solar modules have seen a dramatic reduction in cost over the years. Average selling price in US$/watt has decreased from around US$ 4.12/W in 2008 to around US$ 0.17/W in 2020. In terms of electricity generation, International Energy Agency reported in 2020 that solar is now the cheapest source of electricity in most countries. In Indonesia, the electricity produced from solar is contracted at 5.8 ct. US$/kWh, cheaper than most fossil fuels generation.
Study by Kavlak, Goksin (2018) deduced that increased module efficiency (supported by government-funded and private R&D) was the leading low-level cause of cost reduction in 1980–2012, contributing almost 25% of the decline. After 2001, however, scale economies became a more significant cause of cost reduction, approaching R&D in importance. Booming in solar modules manufacturing in China started from 2005 also helped further in bringing down PV selling price.
Looking at the historic development of PV technology, what will the future look like? The emergence of new cell architectures has made it possible to achieve higher levels of efficiency. The market shift in cell architecture has resulted from bifacial cells and modules, driven by the increased adoption of advanced cell architectures, such as passive emitter and rear cells (PERC), and by compatibility with other new innovations, such as half-cut cells and others.
In this workshop we aim to provide insights on solar PV technology development and future prospects. Additionally, we also want to discuss what role solar PV can play in supporting Indonesia's decarbonization pathway.